26-04-2017: what is the difference between the symbols ©, TM e ®? What does “CE” stand for?

Let’s try to clarify the meaning of the various ©, TM, ® and CE symbols, often used erroneously, if not in a completely wrong way.

The © symbol indicates the set of copyright laws and applies to so-called “human mind works”: literary, musical, scientific and educational works, musical compositions,  choreographic works, sculpture works, painting, drawing, engraving and similar figurative arts, including scenography, drawings and works of  architecture; works applicable to cinema, photography and databases. In Italy copyright is also applicable to software.

The TM symbol stands for “TradeMark” and indicates that it is a trademark filed but not yet granted. The ® symbol indicates that this is a “registered trademark”, i.e. a trademark for which protection has already been granted. In order to use that symbol on one’s products, it is necessary to have the official registration number of the trademark, not to be confused with the application number that is the different number matched with the trademark at the time of application.

The CE symbol means “Conformité Européenne”, and it is a mark on certain types of products that certifies their conformity to the essential requirements for marketing and use in the European Union.

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